Интегрированный курс с элементами национально-регионального компонента
из опыта работы 
Долженковой Л.А.
учителя иностранного языка Дедуровской сш

Представила: Савинова Н.Б., зав.УМК иностранных языков
Дата: 17.04.03

Долженкова Людмила Александровна учитель иностранного языка Дедуровской сш Оренбургской области разработала учебно-методический комплекс по интегрированному курсу в рамках национально- регионального компонента «Интегрированное краеведение» на уроках английского языка. Представленная работа очень актуальна, поскольку в условиях кризиса российского общества патриотическое воспитание молодежи начинается с воспитания любви к своей малой родине и становится одним из главных условий выживания нации.

Познакомимся с некоторыми особенностями программы интегрированного курса

Цели и задачи курса:

·         Содействовать средствами иностранного языка совершенствованию общего, языкового и культорологического образования школьников, их развитию

·         Способствовать развитию мировоззрения школьников в духе нового мышления, эстетических взглядов

·         Формировать эмоционально- ценностное отношение к миру

·         Повысить степень учебных навыков (самостоятельности и самодеятельности) в русле учебного предмета  с ориентацией на знание истории своей страны, воспитания любви и бережного отношения к созданному руками человека и самой природой

·         Обеспечить непосредственное деятельное участие школьников в конкретных мероприятиях для совершенствования знаний по данному предмету.

Цели курса определяются его содержанием, которое представлено в программе тематикой для устной речи и чтения, языковым материалом и требованиями к каждому виду деятельности см. образец:

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Содержание

Учебно- практические действия

Кол-во часов

1

Предмет изучения краеведения на уроках иностранного языка

1.      Ознакомиться с предисловием к пособию. Чтение и обсуждение текстов пособия.

2.      (факультативно) Знакомство с литературой на родном языке, раскрывающей основные понятия курса по краеведению

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2

Обозначение данного предмета в самообразовании и самовоспитании школьников

1.      Чтение и обсуждение текстов пособия

2.      Подбор литературы, вызывающей интерес у школьников на иностранном языке

3.      (факультативно) Экскурсия в краеведческий музей при Доме Творчества с. Дедуровка. Зал «История Оренбургского района»

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3

Странички истории оренбургской области

1.      Чтение и обсуждение текстов, охватывающих:

- географические данные;

-историю прошлого и настоящего;

-растительный и животный мир.

2. Проведение поэтического часа»Природа в творениях писателей и поэтов» Конкурс на лучшее стихотворение или произведение Оренбургских писателей и поэтов и их краткий перевод на иностранный язык (творчество С.Т. Аксакова)

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4

Оренбургкский район- «врата в Азию» Особенности географического расположения и его влияние на развитие района

1.      Чтение и обсуждение текстов пособия

2.      Оформление альбома «Елизаветинские ворота» с комментариями на иностранном языке (вариант коллажирования)

3.      Чтение и обсуждение  материалов пособия , и по желанию,  дополнительной литературы на родном языке, повествующей о жизни древних цивилизаций на территории нашего района

4.      Составление эколого- художественного проекта, отражающего экологические проблемы Оренбургского р-на с кратким пояснением на иностранном языке «Русской земли человек замечательный»

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7.

Странички истории. Пугачевское востание. Победа или поражение оренбургского казачества,

1.      Чтение текста по пособию

2.      Проведение модульной игры по теме занятия

3.      Хроника исторических фактов Пугачевского восстания на иностранном языке

4.      Беседа круглого стола «Раскол среди армии казачества. Пугачевские вольные казаки или казачества царского правительства.

5.      Коллажирование «Оренбург- оплот царского правительства на востоке» Комментарии на иностранном языке.

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9.

«Малая Родина» -село Дедуровка

1.      Чтение и обсуждение текстов

2.      Подготовка к деловой игре6 составление проекта (схемы или макета) нового села. Обоснование на иностранном языке необходимости данных пунктов, архитектурных построек. Наличие в селе парка; экологическое значение парка в селе; его история, его развитие, его значение

3.      Проведение деловой игры: защита проекта новой модели села. Обсуждение лучшего проекта.

4.      Подбор открыток с репродукциями картин известных Оренбургских художников пейзажистов (А.Н. Болдурин), отражающих красоту с Дедуровки. Составление комментариев к открыткам и репродукциям на иностранном языке.

5.      Проведение литературно-поэтического часа «Природа и люди села в  памяти земляков»

 

 

В основе курса положены следующие принципы:

-принцип минимизации- курс построен в основном на краеведческом и региональном материале, включающем те предметы речи, которые позволяют сформировать  наиболее полное  и точно представление о регионе, крае, селе.

-принцип учета региональной специфики, которая складывается из совокупности естетственных или исторически сложившихся экономико- географических особенностей, которые отличают с. Дедуровка от других . К региональным специфическим особенностям Оренбургской области относятся такие как:

-географическое положение (стык Европы и Азии), месторасположение на берегу Урала, наличие в области и на территории села газовой промышленности, явление хлебного края страны

-принцип отбора регоинально значимых предметов речи, которые отражают уникальную особенность региона, его неповторимый характер и в то же время обладают общечеловеческой ценностью, приобщение к которой окажет положительное влияние на повышение общекультурного уровня учащихся

-принцип последовательного предъявления информации, в результате чего происходит постепенное предъявление и раскрытие содержания. Основа изложения информации осуществляется через монологическую речь: сообщение, описание, повествование с последовательной хронологией событий, т.е. такие тексты, которые несут информативно- познавательную функцию общения.

Образцы текстов:

Orenburg District is one of the biggest administrative state of the whole region with the area of about 5,5 thousand sq. kilometers, with the borderline of nearly 450 kilometres long , It has 67 populated areas , 63 thousand country folk, 243 thousand hectares of the agricultural fields ; the main richest natural resources are :forest, gas ,oil, building raw materials .

This district was founded in September 1, 1938 with the main administrative center - town Orenburg. In the year 1998 it has celebrated its 60th Anniversary. People of different nationalities and different languages (though all of them speak  Russian) live here Russians, Kazakhs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Germans, Bashkirs, and others. Of course, they form one big family with their common and individual customs and traditions.

   The climate of the Orenburg district is very severe. Frosty winters and dry winds in summer- the constant struggle for the harvest make our people strong and enduring. It August 1968 the group of geologist found the deposit of gas in the territory of our district and this event brought the people to the creation of the biggest plant in our country gasplant .Now there are hundreds of chinks or wells connecting different gasobjects on the left bank of the river Ural .covering the area of hundreds and more kilometers. Gas has not only the international meaning but it is a warm house with light, hot and cold water. Orenburg district is a wast and broad steppe. It was inhabited by people     thousend years B.C. in the period of Scifo-Sarmatskoe;s time. Later on, swords, spears.arrows, armours had been founded on its territory.on the period of early bronze.The Big Mars barrows is famous monument of the early bronze period in the Whole East Europe. Later on, this land was razed during the Tatar invasion and for many years people fought against Mangolo-Tatar's tributes and rulers .And the last invation was the invation of the Cossaks .They began to settle the new land at the end of the 16th century. Very soon there were many big settlements with a very strange word "stanitza". They looked like as a military garrisons.The District gradually grew stronger and soon it was not only military but as well as an administrative and economic centre with a huge ramparts and fortifications all around.In the year 1748 the'Orenburg Cossacks united and formed the first Orenburg Cossacks military army. This

army played a great role in the history of the whole Orenburg district -E.Pugachev 's peasant war / the year 1773/, then the arrival of the exiled famous people /Taras Shevchenko, for example/ and many others. During the Civil War the roads and many fields of the Orenburg district were the home of the 25th Chapaev's division, many fights and struggles took place here between the Dutov's army and the Soviet Army. The period of the Great Patriotic War has also its reflection in its history . Days and nights people worked on the fields and cattle-farms to help the soldiers in the front lines. They gathered money to build two new ships for the Baltic Navy , two military planes, they worked hard for their future Victory. About 18,5 thousand countrymen and countrywomen fought against the Hitler "s German Army during the period of 1941-1945. People of the Orenburg region are proud of their 5 Heroes of the Soviet Union -I.Artischev, A.Konyahin,V.Obuhov,M.Cheprasov,G.Arslanov. After the war many villages were rebuilt, many new schools, hospitals, clubs,administrative buildings were appeared on its territory. Orenburg district has one of the largest airport - "Central " of our country. Each day a great number of planes transfer many people to different towns, big cities and, of course, abroad. The first spaceman U.A.Gagarin got his future profession in our town and made his first steps to the sky. During the 60th years of the existence of the Orenburg district people grew the corn and the cattle, equipped their native villages. Another page of the Orenburg region /s history is the Orenburg Cossacks. In the year 1881 the number of the Orenburg Cossacks reached the point 295 thousand people. They served to the Tzar government.A great deal of them lived in the Orenburg district. From the period of 1990 up to 1996 a great number of Cossacks organizations formed in different Cossacks settlements;Nikolka, Pavlovka, and Blagoslovenka. The aim of such organization is to increase the number of Cossacks and to fom the classes ofkadets to prepare them for their future military services. In the year 1841 the village Dedurovka was united to the Orenburg Cossacks.

DEDUROVKA. This village was founded in 1820. There were only 98 people living in that place. From its beginning it was a small stanitza with a small wooden church which was built in 1866 and later on in the year 1901 that wretched wooden house was rebuilt into a

small school. Nowadays there was about 1976 people . It is a large village with highly developed agriculture. You can see a great number of farms, well machinized and operated. Dedurovka is situated not far from the town Orenburg - the centre of the Orenburg region. The deep forest with many beautiful lakes are there in that place. There are many modern houses with gas and electricity. They look like very comfortable with trees and flowers which make the village streets green and nice in summer and cosy in other seasons of the year. There are two schools, one of which is 3-storeyed building, modem and comfortable, three shops, a big administrative building, a museum, a House of Culture, a large stadium and a park. It was built many years ago and planted with trees and flowers by the pupils themselves.They wanted their village to be nice and overgreen. There are two monuments in the village Dedurovka. The 1st monument - is the monument to the Soviet soldiers who lived in our place and was born but was killed during the Great Patriotic War, defending our Motherland from the fasciest Germany.The money to this monument was gathered by the collective farmers themselves. It was their memory to those who had never returned to their country. This monument was opened in 1967 when our country celebrated the 30th Anniversary of the Great Victory. The 2" monument is the monument to V.I.Lenin. It was made by the sculpture Petin and later on was presented to the school. In the year 1970 it was put into the small sguare in front of the village school. DISTRICT MUSEUM , which is on the territory of the village Dedurovka, has the unique materials about the history of the Orenburg district, a great exposition of animals and plants of our district or in the vicinity of the river Ural and Sakmara.There is also a large picture gallery and an exposition of life and housekeeping of the Orenburg Cossacks.A big stadium is a place for different sport events, f.ex/'Dedurovskie Relay-race". Young boys and girls can find all the opportunity to be strong and healthy and get excellent sport results here.

 

В ходе последовательного информирования учащиеся имеют одновременно возможность совершенствовать основные коммуникативные умения за счет выполнения разнообразных заданий. Например

Природа:

1.      Крупной рекой Оренбургской области является река Урал. Подготовить сообщение об этой реке.

2.       Село Дедуровка также располагается на этой реке. Сообщение: Хозяйственное значение реки в историческом развитии села.

Промышленность:

1.        Узнай по рекламному справочнику, какие промышленные предприятия и где занимаются добычей и переработкой газа. Расскажи об этом поподробнее.

2.         Возьми интервью у работающих в производственной фирме знакомых или родителей. Узнай у них и расскажи в классе, чем занимается эта фирма, в каком объеме, ск. человек на ней работает, какие перспективы развития она имеет.

Формирование коммуникативной компетенции учащихся, работающих по данному курсу осуществляется за счет следующей технологии обучения:

1.Дается тема, к которой подключается:

-          текстовой блок

-          послетекстовой блок

-          вспомогательный блок, в состав которого входит справочный материал.

a)     Что представляет собой текстовой блок?

Он представляет собой сочетание вербально- текстовой и визуально- изобразительной информации с центральной идеей. В задачу текстового блока входит  введение учащихся в мир регионоведение, создание социокультурного портрета региона и наиболее полного представления о традициях и ценностях, проблемах и реалиях современной действительности

    б)Послетекстовой блок включает послетекстовые задания, выполняющие свое традиционное назначение- обеспечить целенаправленность процесса чтения и проконтролировать его понимание.

Образец

 

Match

 

a)    To lie

Territory

To put down

To start

To be concentrated

To produce

Population

Country folk

Rank

Beautiful

b)    Significant

To reach

To lend one’s hand

Benificial

To leave

Warmth

 

Village people

Inhabitants

Title

To be situated

To begin

Land

Picture queue

To unit

To make product

Heartliness

Usefulness

Usefull

To desert

Meaning

To come to the aim

To help

 

Give your arguments or reason’s please

1.      Orenburg served as a centre of colonization of  Central Asia...

2.      Orenburg was also known as the place for the exiles...

Historical Events Revie. Match

a)     1731

b)     1735

c)     1743

d)     1773

e)     1820

f)       1925

g)     1883

1)The expedition reached the place where the Or flows into the Ural

2) V.S. Shinkarjov was born in village Dedurovka in the family of the poor counry people

3) The first governer of Orenburg Nepluev transferred it to the place where it stands at present

4) E. Pugachev occupied Berdy and made the place of his headquarters

5)That year Kasakhstan was joined to Russia

6) This year S/S/ Pushkin visited Orenburg and Berdy to collect some materal for his book “The Capitan’s Daughter”

7) Dedurovka was founded by the peasants from Hursk province who was knon as the Cossacks later on

Act out the dialogue.

A famous historian who wrote many books and articles in the newspapers about the Orenburg region visited your school. What would you like to ask him (her ) about?

 

        в) Вспомогательный блок содержит общий список лингвострановедческих структур (единиц), значение которых необходимо для формирования социокультурной компетенции учащихся. Их усвоение обеспечивается в процессе выполнения многочисленных заданий в рамках каждой подтемы, а также при выполнении специальных заданий.    

2. В учебно- методическом комплексе по данному интегрированному курсу предлагается  использовать прием колажирования. Коллаж –это прежде всего средство зрительной наглядности, представляющее собой образное, схематическое фиксирование с помощью языковых и экстралингвистических средств отображения некоторой части предметного содержания, объединенного ключевым понятием- реалии.

 Людмила Николаевна считает, что это один из  наиболее эффективных форм при работе с материалами по истории изучения родного края на иностранном языке. Суть его в создании коллажа путем наклеивания (прикрепления) на какую- то основу различных материалов для того, чтобы  последовательно раскрыть ключевое понятие осваиваемой темы. Она группирует вокург ключевого понятия или ядра коллажа разноплановую, разноуровневую информацию, сосатвляющую лексико- семантический фон основного понятия:

-названия текстов,

-рисунки, фотоматериалы,

-          отдельные лова- реалии, фразы и предложения;

-          грамматические категории

Так например, при освоении темы «Orenburg region  ядром или ключевым понятием является сама тема, а его спутниками, составляющими фоновое окружение ядра –History, geographical position, population etc

В свою очередь понятие History включает следующие понятия- спутники:

History  of Orenburg region

Historical people

Historical event

Multinationality

Political significance of time

3. Другой   формой работы способствующей усвоению  краеведческого материала у Людмилы Николаевны является игра, а вернее игровое поведение,  в котором возможны варианты отражения жизненных реалий и литературного быта  того исторического времени, которое проходит через содержание

Работа над игровым аспектом предполагает шесть этапов:

1.      Подготовительный

2.      Изучающий

3.      Этап предварительной экспертизы

4.      Деятельностный

5.      Исследовательский

6.      Коммуникативный

На каждый этап отводится по одному уроку. Рассмотрим их подробнее.

1.      Подготовительный

Цель его

-          введение учащихся в социокультурную среду, в которой происходит действие рассказа

-           создание заинтересованности в дальнейшей работе над произведением.

 

 

LITERATURE. CULTURE.ART. Orenburg region is famous for its folk-songs and folk-dances. It is due to various national traditions and customs. All historical events of this country-side have their reflection in the cultural and artistic life of the region.The most famous and deep loved by the people are the folk-songs about the life of the peasants,poor people and, of course, their leader-E.Pugachev, St.Rasin,Condratij Bulavin.

The first schools were opened in the year 1748. Children of the exiled persons studied and got education there. In the year 1746-1760 the schools for the senior military engineers were opened. The 1st educational reform took place in the year 1786. The main aim of it was to build new kind of educational institutions. The great support belonged to Peter Ivanovich Richkov. He published his work "The History of the Orenburg district" where he described the development of that country-side. M.V.Lomonosov highly appreciated this work and got his own high quality of the Ilezk's salt. Of course, this work is a syclopedia of our country-side with its nature, animal world, agriculture and the part of the history. WRITERS. Our Orenburg region is closely connected with the names of G.R.Derzhavin who lived here with his parents during the period of 1750-1754 . He lived in his estate near the town Buzuluk and considered himself to be the citizen of this district. The native of the Orenburg region was the author and the writer ,also as a historian-N.M.Karamzin./1766-1826/. I.A.Krilov, the author of many popular fables, spent his childhood and lived with his parents from the year 1772 up to 1775 in the town Orenburg- which had its name "Yaizkii gorodok" at that time. He also the witness of the historical event- E.Pugachev's uprising and later on he told about this event to A.S.Pushkin who was under his work of "Pugachev's history" at that time.S.T.Aksakov- he was born in 1791 in the town Ufa, but he spent his childhood in the estate of his grandfather /village Aksakovo, Busuluk region/ .He is the author of the following novels; "The Family Chronicals", "The childhood in the native town Orenburg''. He is the writer of our whole district.

 

       Текст дается школьникам для  домашнего ознакомительного и поискового чтения с групповыми или индивидуальными заданиями, причем формы их выполнения выбираются учащимися самостоятельно. Это может быть:

§         определение историко- географического фона произведения (места жительства народностей , населяющих оренбургскую область, маршрут перемещения казачьих войск по территории Оренбургской губернии,  места их  оседлости и др.);

§         поиск социокультурных реалий, которые могут быть выражены языковыми средствами – подготовка иллюстраций быта народов того времени, согласно традициям, описание моделей одежды  и др.;

§         поиск литературных символов, те места в тексте, где даются описание пребывания А.С. Пушкина в Оренбургском крае, работа А.Брюлова по благоустройству и архитектурным постройкам в центре  Оренбурга и др.

2.Изучающий этап

Цель его:

-          изучение текста во всех подробностях

-           подготовка учащихся к свободному владению. Языковым материалом

   Ребятам предлагается отметить в тексте и выписать цитаты с датами, составляющими целостный литературный исторический портрет, восстановить хронологию событий.

 

3.Предварительная экспертиза

Это интерпретация текста, подготовка к деятельностному этапу.

Цель его:

-          обозначение психологического фона, на котором дается описание текста

-          подготовка к ролевому взаимодействию

Образец задания

Вместе с соседом по парте выберите абзац из текста, который Вам запомнился больше всего и напишите, то что вы запомнили.

 (драматизация)

Цель его:

-постижение глубинной сути текста посредством ролевого взаимодействия

Это может быть импровизация «немых сцен» Екатерины П и штатского советника И.Кирилова на проект об основании города при устье Ори, и затем озвучивание данной сцены. Учащиеся комментируют увиденное: какие чувства выражает тот или иной персонаж, какие черты характера он проявляет, какие проблемы представлены в данном эпизоде.

5. Исследовательский

Цель его:

-учебное исследование одного из аспектов текста: физико-географическое положение края, историко- литературный аспект.

Этот этап реализует творческий потенциал учащихся, развивает их познавательную активность, способствует более глубокому прочтению текстов о своем крае, обобщению жизненного и языкового опыта учащихся.

Фрагмент

Национальный костюм как объект изучения в страноведении.

При знакомстве учащихся с культурой и обычаями своей страны, деревни, села, города важно не только дать представление о данных понятиях, но и по возможности постараться развивать в ученике умение анализировать факты и события, влияющие на формирование этой культуры. Одним из проявлений культуры и традиций страны (города, села, деревни) является национальный костюм. В качестве примера выберем костюм нашего села Дедуровки (период гражданской войны и постгражданских времён, хотя элементы этого костюма сохранились и в послевоенное время) и немного расскажем о нём. Ушедший в прошлое, появляющийся лишь на фольклорных и некоторых традиционных праздниках национальный костюм сохраняется как материализованный результат длительного исторического, социального и культурного развития отдельного региона.

Население Дедуровки представляло в середине 1830-х годов единение ка­зачества, русских и небольшое количество этнических групп: казахов, морд­вы и башкир. Коренное население нынешних жителей села называлось «хох­лами» и традиция сохранения своего «хохляцкого» рода сильно сохранялась. Долгое время это название шло от курских украинцев, сохранивших свой го­вор, самобытность и культуру, даже при слиянии их с русскоязычным насе­лением. Национальный костюм «хохлов», который претерпел существенные изме­нения в результате исторического развития, принадлежит к украинской груп­пе. Смеем предположить, что до революционных преобразований в стране, курские украинцы предпочитали яркие цвета в своей одежде, и чем ярче, ко­лоритнее, с различными рюшами и убранством- был этот костюм, тем богаче являлся представитель его носящий по своему роду. Большое значение также имело качество ткани и вышивка на ней. Предпочтение отдавалось резчатому 8 узору, цветам (большим и ярким по размеру) и, конечно, головной убор, на среднем углу платка или косынки в самом низу - вензель с именем лица, но­сившего его (например, Мария Каширина — М.К.).

Мужская одежда выглядела проще. Китель, папаха, фуражка с околышком, брюки и рубашка имели равный, однотонный цвет, но обязательно вшива­лись лампасы того цвета казачьего войска, к которому данное мужское насе­ление относилось (например, - синий, впоследствии — зелёный). Цвет лампас определялся военным командованием казачьих войск. Например, Донгузские казаки - зелёный; Оренбургские казаки - синий (к ним относились и относятся жи­тели — мужчины с. Дедуровка); Байкальские казаки - жёлтый.

Рубашка напоминала косоворотку со стоячим воротником. Обувь. У женщин носились вязаные чулки до колен красного, жёлтого цве­та, и желательно с рисунком. Поверх надевались кожаные сапожки остроно­сые и на резинках позади. У мужчин — кожаные сапоги. В них вставлялся кнут для коня. Ремень и са­поги из одной кожи. Характерно то, что длина платья у женщин доходила до середины икр с тем, чтобы были видны чулочки и обязательно рюши на юбке верхнего платья или оборочки. Менялась история и в дальнейшем стали изменяться цвета. Однотонные тёмные, серые или жёлто-синие. Горе, тревога за жизнь близких находила отражение в одежде. Одежда отражала настроение людей. Невеста вышивала свой узор на рубашке жениху, жена — мужу-солдату, отцу-воину.

В религиозные дни (Пасха, Рождество, Троица) или на крещение младенца надевалась светлых тонов одежда, головной убор и чулки. Сравнивая национальный костюм данного народа, который претерпел изме­нения через долгие исторические эпохи, сделать следующие выводы:

1. учитывая многонациональность нашего села (в конце 30-х годов прошло­го столетия) происходит образование из одного народа (украинцы) друго­го (хохлы), развивающих в дальнейшем свою национальную культуру, что сказывается на национальном костюме;

2. национальный костюм, как и другие элементы национальной культуры народа, вовлечённого в орбиту влияния другой культуры, неизбежно ис­пытывают влияние этой культуры (русскоязычное население села).

3. наиболее существенным отличием «хохляцкого» костюма от многих дру­гих национальных костюмов является его деление на подвиды по нацио­нальному признаку.

С точки зрения религии различия в национальном костюме были минималь­ны. Это касалось лишь некоторой части исполнения обрядов (так как наряду с православными имеются и старообрядцы на селе). Возможен вариант показа этой темы через проектные задания, выполненные учащимися по теме «Внешность. Одежда».

   6. Коммуникативный

 

Цель его:

-          развитие языкового сознания школьников через внешнеречевую реализацию

-          формирование умений речевой деятельности

-          повышение речевой культуры учащихся

Это не просто разыгрывание сценок, а их творческое переосмысление, дополнение, завершение пропущенных эпизодов, выражение своей позиции через различне социальные роли. Например, восстание Е. Пугачева. Много раз отработанный образ в истории и в литературе, но учащиеся поднимают для себя проблему казачества – сток родственных корней жителей села. А именно, примкнуть ли к восставшим или пройти против «новоявленного царя» поддержав тем самым царское, гнетущее правление. В ходе драматизации отражается позиция казачества с современной точки зрения.

Использование проектных заданий на уроках, английского языка.

Выполнение проектных заданий позволяет школьникам видеть практиче­скую пользу от изучения иностранного языка, следствием чего является по­вышение интереса к этому предмету. Нам хотелось бы привести примеры проектных заданий, которые уже были использованы на уроке. Материалы ко всем проектным заданиям выбирались при самом активном участии школь­ников.

В б классе, заканчивая работу над учебником Т.Б. Клементьевой и Б. Монка «Нарру мы выбрали проект на тему  Ребятам было предложено принести или нарисовать продукты пита­ния и предметы для приготовления пищи, особо любимые хохлами. Соокегу» так мы назвали наш урок. Выполняя это задание, мы пользо­вались книгой В.В. Похлёбкина «Национальные кухни наших народов. Ос­новные кулинарные направления, их история и особенности»

1. Speak about the most typical dishes in Dedurovka.

2. Speak about the most typical dishes in Britain.

3. Compare the most typical Ukrainian and British dishes. What is different? What's the same?

4. Cook or bake something. Let your mothers, grandmothers help you.

5. Give a recipe of any dish.

6. Lay the table for tea. How do the Ukrainian people do it? How do British peo­ple do it?

Me «Would You Like a Cup of Tea?»).

Pi: I am Mrs. Scone. I contain some flour and raisins. P2: I am Round Pie. My name is "Karavai". It is an Ukrainian name. I contain some flour, water, some sour cream  My toppings may be from mashed potatoes mope) and eggs

P3:1 am varenickki with cherries. Our people ("Hohli") like and enjoy eating them.

They taste wonderful.

T: As for me, I like varenickki with mashed potatoes and fried mushrooms. Why

do the Ukrainian people like to eat varenickki with berries and mushrooms?

P4:1 think, because there are a lot them in our place.

T: Name them.

P4: Bildberries, wild strawberries, strawberries, damp mushrooms, and different

kinds of them. That's why we take care of nature.

 T: Can you find the English and the Ukrainian proverbs to the Russian one

P4: "As the tree, so the fruit;"

Kulesh.

P5:1 am not a porridge. My name is Kulesh. I am an old Cossack's cookery / dish. It is similar the dish borch. More popular and may be as the 1st so as the 2nd dish. I contain 6 potatoes, 250 gr. lard, 0,5 glass of millet, 3 or 4 onion, 2 table spoons of verdure, 1,5-2 litre of water, 2 teaspoons of salt.

1. What will be my village m future?

2. What do you know about the historical development of my village? What kind of the historical development (or some episode) do you know? Do you like it?

3. Do you want to study the course "Integrated Country Study"?

4. Is it interesting to study this course? What does it give me as a person?

5. What is the role of the village Dedurovka in my life?

6. Do you want to live in your place for your whole life? Give your arguments.

7. Could you name you favourite place in the village Dedurovka? Do you like to rest there? Alone with your friends? Why?

8. Do you know what is your village Dedurovka rich in? Enumerate all facts you

Урок «Мастер класс»
Фрагмент

Языковая информация к курсу "Country study".

I Orenburg district am one of the biggest administrative states of the whole region. With the area of about 5,5 thousand square kilometers with the borderline of nearly 450 kilometers long.

It has 67 populated areas, 63 thousand folk, and 243 thousand hectares of the agricultural fields.

II Composition (Student of 9 form - Dolzhenkova Ulja)

"Many, many years ago there was an unknown place with beautiful lakes and deep forests. One day some people - the workers of the Salt-Ilek's mines (or salt-mines) decided to set up the settlement. They greatly interested in that place. It was very rich in minerals, forests and lakes. The leader of them was Dedura, later on our village was named after him and it is known today as Dedurovka.

Some years passed and instead of small number of houses appeared a new one - and at last - a new settlement with its traditions, new mode of life was built. Who were these people? The answer is very simple their roots came out from the eastern part of Ukraine. They has brought with themselves their Ukrainian humor, youthful energy, a great love to their land and a great capacity for work.

Hundred years passed and these people are still efficient and hard working one. But the life was hard at the same time. In December 12th, 1840 the statue of the formation of the military Cossack's army was adopted. Among them were the people from Dedurovka. They had been given a plot of arable land of 0,3 gektars for a person. But the main lovely thing for the Cossack was a horse. One, who had it, considered being the richest in his settlement. The horse was not a main helper in the Cossack's life; it was also a faithful friend. A great deal of songs, legends and essays were and are still devoted to that domestic animal. Soon there will be a 182 anniversary of our village Dedurovka. Inspite of many difficulties and troubles our people remain kind and delicate, skilful and professional masters of their Native Land".

Ill Originality (distinctivity) and traditions of the people of the village Dedurovka. a) Features:

Before the Civil War the Ukrainian people brought the gardening and market gardening.'

Horse breeding was the main occupation of Cossacks: there were two kinds of them:

the Bashkirs and the Kalmyks horses.

6) The main feature in the education of the grown-ups was the respect to the old

people.

b) Architecture. House. "The Cossack must possess only three things: the horse, the

house and the wife,"- says the popular Cossack's proverb.

The house was built not very high. The ceiling was made of straw, later oh of tin; the walls were made of wood (wooden walls), then straw over them and, of course, white watered (or white washed).

Early the chalk was changed into the potatoes by the Kazakhs (Kasaxn). The Red Clay was get by the peasants themselves in the Red Hill, the place which was known among the people as "Mogilka"(because there was a deeping in that place with the water in it all the year round. Some years later two tombs were founded there with two wooden crosses).

The main people who lived there were the "Kirgis". This name was translated among the villagers as the "Goddish creature". And such was called the "Kazakh". In front of the house there was a small garden where the women grew the acacia, lilac, birch,

poplars and other trees and flowers. The streets were equally and straight. There were 140 people, carters of the Salt-Ilezk strade, living in the village at that time.

The house was devided into 2parts: one of it has a big stove and in the second there was a large bed, and a mirror with photos of the member of the family, or icons and some instruments for sewing (named as "distaff or "spinning-wheel"). r) Language. Dialect's («xoxJiauKHH») the combination of Russian and the Ukrainian languages.

Church. Religions (Christianity). The village Dedurovka was founded in 1828. In the year 1866, the first church, a very small and uncomfortable, appeared it that settlement. Later on, in the year 1901 - the second one was built. All around the church the people planted the poplars, which they have brought, from their native land - the Ukraine. The church was decorated by the carved design (or patterned). Not far from it was a church house and closer to it - the club. Several times the Soviet government closed it and in the year 1939 during the great thunderstorm the church burnt. The self-ringing or bell-tower was on a great fire. Later on, someone could find a lot of tsar's money on this place.

On the place where there are now the "16th Flats" houses was the waste ground; their Cossack had their state grain purchase there.

There were 4 collective farms at those days. The people were engaged in gardening, stockbreeding (f.ex. turkey, ducks, colorful hens, goose). fl) The traditional clothes of the Cossacks.

Men: a peaked cap, trousers, and shirt - all of them are of blue color. Each Cossack had the knotted rope (or lash). He had never touched the horse, never bit it. e) A horse. There was one more important thing; the real Cossack would never take the rifle for the hunting. There was some episode (example) when the man went on wolves with only one knotted rope. He could kill the wolf with out the rifle. The horse served to his master from the period of 4 up to years. And it belonged only for service. The Cossack was one of the members of the military Cossack army and he was given a horse, and uniform, but the commander distributed the tools. At home they had their own rifle to protect his family from the foes. When the boy reached 3 years old he was taught to ride the horse but only under the super version of his father, grandfather or elder brother. When he was 18 he joined the military Cossack's division, went to the steppe to improve his Cossack's quality in practice. This study work had to be in the period not connected with the time of the agricultural work. He was also the main breadwinner of the large family.

The woman was not a person in the family; but is she had brought to this family a son she became the hostess; she had to keep the house, play the master and even took part in the family discussions. tk) Literature. Culture and Art.

Orenburg region is famous for its folk-songs and folk-dances. The famous one is the folk-group "Krinitza" which has gathered a great collection of old Cossack's songs. The group uses these songs in its concerts of folk songs. The post popular writer is S.T.Aksakov . His famous novel "The family chronics" is well-known among the people of the village Dedurovka. The name of the Orenburg painter - Bolodurin also is well-known in our place. It was he who asked the Orenburg government to open the first museum in the village. Now it is a place of great art, culture of the country-side. Many landscapes off famous village places are there in the halls of the museum. Bolodurin is also known as a portraitist. He made many pictures to our simple persons, the leaders of our place and

devoted them to the museum. Several times he visited our place, lived and worked here.

3) Dishes Menu / from the history of the Ukrainian cookery./

The Ukrainian National Cookery was formed in fact in the middle of the XVIII up to

the end of the XIX th centuries. It can be explained gratefully by the formation of the

Ukrainian state and Ukrainian nation at that period of time.

But at the same time the Ukraine was parted into different territorical areas, and these

differences are still preserved in the national cookery, though they are not so sharp

and real. So the Ukrainian National Cookery was created it has some special

particularities nowadays.

What are they?

- First, it has been performed on the base of the well-known elements of these regional parts of the whole Ukrainian cookery (f. ex. cookery ofZakarpatje; of Chemigovshina and others).

Second, the differences of national conolitious and the historical development of some areas of the country itself; the neighbourhood of many nations (f. ex. Russian, Byelorussian, Moldavian, Tatars, German, Hungarians, Greek, Turkey) played a great role in the formation of the national cookey;

- After the Tatar-Mongol's invasion, third, the influence of the Russian cookery on the Ukrainian one has stopped and you can't find any traditions of the Russian cookery because all these ties were lost. Only this fact made these kinds of cookeries different. Though the attemps to preserve them were done but they have changed a little one.

For example, fried in the oiled pan the food or "smazhenia" (in the Ukrainian language) is very popular in the Ukrainian menu but not in Russian one. This fact was brought from the Turkic cookery. The dish like "pelmeni" (was taken from Turkish cookery - "dush-vara") turned, first, into the Ukrainian dish "vara-niki" and, later on was given (or served) with different stuffings (cherry, curds, onions, lard - which is known among the Ukrainian people as "shkwarki".

From the German cookery came the varient of breaking up the food-stuffs (or products) into small parts (the Ukrainian - "sicheniki") - the meat dish as a chops or cutlets from the minced meat with adding ofcurrets, eggs, cabbage, mushrooms and so on.

Food raw materials. We may emphasize that they were chosen in the contrast to Eastern Cookery. In the XVI - XVII centuries the Ukrainian Cossaks began to use in their dish-lard - to annoy the "basurmen". The usage of the beef was limited . Why? Oxes or bulls in the Ukraine were not the eatable products but they were a labour force and as the people say, the meat is not sofender as the park (or hog).

Some more foreigh food-stuff get the wide spread. For example, vegetable oil. It is more valuable than butter because it was brought from Greece, the country which was religiously connected with the Ukrainian lands. What are the main originalities of the Ukrainian cookery?

1) - First, the usage of such food-stuffs as-lard, for example, beetroot (or beet), torment or flour.

2) - Second, the components on the base of the main and leading one, for example, "borsch" - where among the beet you can see or find one or two dozens which make this dish a delicious and a tasty one.

Lard - It may be used as an independent dish and as the element for roast (or to

fry). Lard can be eaten as salt, boiled, smoke and fried; it can be mixed with not

greasy meat but it may be also used in the desert (sweet dish). For example

"verguni" are fried in lard or sometimes boiled in it.

Paste - may be unleavened, short and unyeast.

Crops - or - cereals - millet and rice. By the way "rice" was known as

"sorochinskoye psheno " - the wrong (or the distorted) word "saratsiskoje" or

"Turkish" came to the Ukrainian cookery from the Hungary; so there appeared a

new word in cookery slang "saratsinskoye" .

Vegetables - they may be the garnish to the main dish with lard and the element

to the dish ("borsch") among cabbage, carrot, pumpkin, maize (corn), potato,

tomato, beans (f. ex. haricot bean or runner bean, peas and lentil).

Potato - it is used mainly as the garnish to the second dish. It is known as one of

the main flavour (f. ex. mashed potatoes Nowadays very popular varient of fried

potatoes or chips).

Flavour - onion, garlic, dill, mint, laurel, pepper, cinnamon.

Fruits - cherry, plum, pear, black-and-red currant, water-melon, apple-tree,

raspberry; All of them are given as wet, steep, fresh, dried, smoked.

Dishes - made of clay: cups, plates, pots, bowls, jugs (or "glechiki" in the

Ukrainian dialects).

From the Ukrainian cookery technology we must underline the main way of working up the food-stuffs - it is the chopping (or shred) from one side; and from the other-cutting (or crushing) very small food-stuffs-so-called "ruflets", filling by the meat, baked dish, minced meat - so many kinds of "sicheniki" which have been brought from German, Poland and Czechoslovakia cookeries.

Discussing Information.

The information bellow will help you to know more about the historical period connected with the Orenburg region.

Two hundred years ago Russia was a country of sharp social contrasts. Beautiful estates and mansions of wealthy landlords, often built to designs of Moscow, St. Petersburg and foreign architects, stood near poverty-stricken villages and hamlets. Illiteracy of the people was a salient feature of this period of "enlightened absolutism". Another striking feature of the social system was the economic and legal inequality of the population - poverty and oppression on the one hand, luxurious life and absolute rule on the other. It was a period when the self peasantry suffered the most brutal exploitation and were deprived of all rights. The peasant economy was in the main natural, i. e. It had practically no links with the market. The life o the peasants was regulated by their landlords, who could subject them to various punishments, send them as recruits to the army, and even condemn them to hard labor. Peasants could be sold and bought individually, in whole families and in whole villages.

Catherine EL, the head of the Russian state was a "generous" empress. Her favorites and courtiers received huge landed estates, with thousands of sent peasants from her hand. This situation naturally aroused anger among the peasants. Peasant uprisings not brake out from time to time. In the 1760's and early 1770's discontent with growing exploitation spread from the peasantry to workmen, Cossacks and ethnic minorities. The Peasant War broke out in September, 1773. This antifeudal struggle of the broad popular masses was led by Yemelyan Pugachev was bom in the Cossack village ofZimoveyskaya on the Don River. At 17 he had his baptism of fire as a soldier in a Cossack squadron . From that time his life was to be linked with the army for many years. Long military service steeled his character and will, while the injustices which were common in the army made him ponder over the basically injust social system in Russia. Discharged from the army on account of poor health, Pugachev returned to the Don region but soon left it in search of a better place to live in, which he never found.

A hard-bitten Don Cossack, Yemelyan Pugachev wielded weapons with skilful ease but he could neither read nor write. When he came to the for among the Yaik Cossacks he proclaimed himself "Emperor Peter III", the name under which he acted throughout the period of the peasant war. The rebels were not bothered by the fact that their struggle for a better life was led by an "Emperor". True Pugachev's closest associates knew his real identity and name but most of the insurgents had implict faith in a "kind" "peasant" tsar. This was naive monarchism, the traditional basis of Russian peasant ideology in the feudal period.

The Peasant War began on the River Yaik. A small detachment of Cossacks led by Pugachev set out on a march along the border, wiping out small frontier Garrisons. On the very first day of the march the insurgents issued a manifest in which Pugachev granted the Cossacks "the river Yaik, the lands and the fields", "payment in cash and in kind" as well as "supplies of lead and powder". This manifesto was written by the Yaik Cossack I. pochitalin who was thoroughly familiar with Pugachev's plans. Pugachev had got a large rebel army. Early in October, 1773, this army reached the city of Orenburg laid siege to it. The headquarters of the peasant army was set up in Berda, a

small settlement, five kilometers from the designed city. Pugachev lived in a log hut protected by Cossack "quards men". Rumors of the uprising quickly spread among the population. In the vast territory between the Volga River and the Ural armed units formed spontaneously, and new hotbeds of war flared up. The struggle of Russian peasants and workmen against exploitation and oppression was joined by growing numbers ofBashkirs, Tatars, Kalmyks, Kazakhs, Mordovians, Chuvashes and other ethnic minorities. Talented leaders from among their midst came to fore. One of the most active theaters of war was the Urals with its numerous mines and metal works. By the winter of 1773 almost all the workmen joined local units or the main army which still continued its siege of Orenburg, some of them continued making cannons and ammunition for the rebel army. A city of Orenburg, a stronghold of the tsarist government in the East, was regarded by the Yaik Cossacks, as the hatefoll cause of their miserable life in the Yaik area. An outstanding military operations in the Urals was played by the veteran soldier Ivan Beloborodov. Up to the end of 1774 a great area of Russia was captured by the numerous insurgent units: Ufa, Samara, Stavropol, the Volga basin, Kazan, Penza and Saratov provinces. Even Moscow itself was gripped by alarm. Only in March 1774 the siege of Orenburg and Ufa ended in failure for the insurgents. Peasant uprising were simulated by Pugachev's manifesto in which he granted to "all people... freedom the status of Cossacks for ever annulment of recruitment, exemption from poll-tax and other levies, possessions of lands, forests, fields, fisheries, and salt lakes without purchased license and without quitrent..." Early in September, 1774, Pugachev was arrested by a group of Cossack traitors and brought to Yaitsky Gorodok, the settlement on the River Yaik. By a fatal coincidence of circumstances the career of "Emperor Peter m" ended where it has started exactly a year before.

Pugachev was executed in Moscow's Bolotnaya Square on January 10, 1775. Despite their defeat, the peasant armies in the war of 1773-1775 dealt a crushing blow to the Russian feudal system. Even while the war was still going on, the government ordered that Pugachev's house together with its fence and garden be burned down and its site sprinkled with salt and surrounded by a ditch.

The Cossack village ofZimoveyskaya, the birthplace of Pugachev, was moved to another locality and renamed Potyokinskaya. The River Yaik where the War began was renamed the Ural and the Yaik Cossacks were called Ural Cossacks. Despite all these efforts of the tsarist government the people treasured memories of the Peasant War and its leaders.

Listen, Read and try to describe the main hero –E. Pugachev,. Who was he?

At the end of the Pugachev's revolt (or uprising) the Cossack's army was

parted into two antigonic groups. Pugachev understood that position but he

believed that everything would be all right.

Here is the scene of the last minutes of the Pugachev's consolidation with his

friends (it was in the past) and now - enemies - the Cossacks.

Pugachev wanted to go to the Caspian Sea, hoping to be saved with the help of

the national minority - Kyrgyz - in the steppe. Some of the Cossacks agreed

to go with their leader - E. Pugachev, - Other did not want to be punished by

the government; so they were dissipated. Pugachev was in the difficult

position. He tried to pursuade them to go to the steppe but they did not agree,

saying that it was a time when he had to follow them.

Pugachev: "What does it mean? You are going to betray you Emperor?"

Aren't you?

Cossacks: "We have no any chance. We have to do it." And they tried to tie E.

Pugachev, but he could put up a resistance.

Pugachev: "I have been seeing your betray for a long time." - and he stretched

out his hands, saying: "Tied up!" Am I a robber?

But nobody answered him.

Later on he was brought to the Count Panin. The last met Pugachev near his

house, asking him the question: "Who are you?"

Pugachev: "I am Emelian Ivanov Pugachev", - answered the prisoner.

Panin: "How could you, thief, named yourself the Emperor?"

Pugachev: "I am not a thief, I am a small raven, a larger one is just near here,

"flying over there", - answered Pugachev proudly.

And looking at the people, he went on saying: "Forgive me, you, people of

Christianity, what I have sinned, forgive me, please."

Pugachev's dream about "the Cossack's freedom" spread only ruin, starvation, death, illness of the destitution people of the besieged towns. f.ex.: "the town oflletsky Gorodok." How did the people live there? They made their own kissel:

- they have found the new sort of clay very soft and without the sand;

-  they boiled it and cooked something like kissel used in their food.

And the Pugachev's revolt was nothing than robbery or better to say burglary,

hanging well-to-do persons and, of course, crime.

At the end of his military action E. Pugachev wanted to hide in Persia.

The main feature characteristics ofYemelyan Pugachev. /from the novel by A. S. Pushkin "The Captain's Daughter"./ We known that Yemelyan Pugachev was the leader of the Peasant's uprising in the year 1773. Also he was a bright example of the Yaik Cossacks to understand their thoughts, dreams and a great desire to possess "the river Yaik, the lands and the fields".

So, let's appeal to a great novel devoting to this person as 'The Captain's Daughter" by A. S. Pushkin.

The main aim of such Pugachev's revolt - is "All his ploys are not of his intellect and military order but of his insolence, case (or chance) and success to depend on "Archbishop, Platon Lubarskij." 'The History ofE. Pugachev". A. S. Pushkin, p. 724.

The main heroes are P. Grinjov and E. Pugachev. Tasks:

1. Speak on Pugachev thought the P. Grinjov's eyes.

2. Give your first impression of him. Discuss his nature. Part HI 'The Leader". Grinjov's nightmare.

"... It was a great dream appeared to me which I could never forget and which had some prophecy (npopoqecrBo) when I tried to analyze all strange circumstances of my life...

/May be it was a superstition (cyeBepne) of all my possible contempts to the prejudice (npeflpaccyflKH)/...

.. .My mother asked me to say good-bye to my dicing father... .. -And what could I see? Instead of my father astrange picture appeared before my eyes: there was an unknown man in the bed; he had a black beard and merry eyes looking at me attentively. I was greatly puzzled. I asked my mother: "What does at mean? He is not my father and why should I ask him to bless me. He is only a male (MyxHK)"... I didn't agree with her thought she prayed me to do the thing... Suddenly the male jumped out of the bed, snatched out the axe from his bach and began to wave him from one side to another. I tried to run away but I could not. The whole room began to fall in by the dead bodies; I stumbled over them and slipped in the bloody pools. A terrible male called me heartly and tenderly. Don't be afraid of me. Don't fear, come to my blessing." Terror and anxiety seized my and at that moment I wohe up."

3. Find the words attracting the emotional side of the story.

Merry, jumped out, snatched (tooh) the axe out from one's bael.

Key: To have from one side to another, to fall in by dead bodies, to slip in one's

bloody pools, terrible male... called me heartly and tenderly, terror and anxiety; to

size me.

4. Compare the description of the real acquaintance with the Grinjov's

nightmare /dream/.

... "Where is the Leader?" -1 asked the owner of the cim. -1 am here, your majester. -1 heard somebody's voice upstairs...

... The male got down; his appearance seemed to be known to me. He was about 40, neither very tall nor very small, thin and wide - shouldered. His blach beard was grey somewhere, his eyes were very large, living and very cunning. His face was pleasant but there was something knavish (ruiyroBCKoe). His hair was cut in the circle; he had a torn dressing - gown and tatar's trousers on."

 

ВЫВОД:

               Технология обучения, разработанная Долженковой Л.Н.:

-          вызывает наибольший интерес к изучению иностранного языка, поскольку каждый обучаемый принимает максимальное участие в работе;

-          создает атмосферу непринужденности и  ситмуляции учебно- воспитательного процесса;

-          содействует и способствует повышению языкового уровня учащихся;

-          содействует максимальной реализации индивидуальных интеллектуальных способностей каждого ученика, оказывает развивающе- формирующий характер;

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